Undergraduate research or research-based courses: Which is most beneficial for science students? Research in Science Education. 49(1), 91 – 107
Autores: Olivares, R; & González, C.
Abstract: Over the last 25 years, both research literature and practice-oriented reports have claimed the need for improving the quality of undergraduate science education through linking research and teaching. Two manners of doing this are reported: undergraduate research and research-based courses. Although there are studies reporting benefits of participating in these experiences, few synthesize their findings. In this article, we present a literature review aimed at synthesizing and comparing results of the impact of participating in these research experiences to establish which approach is most beneficial for students to develop as scientists. Twenty studies on student participation in undergraduate research and research-based courses were reviewed. Results show that both types of experiences have positive effects on students. These results have implications for both practice and research. Regarding practice, we propose ideas for designing and implementing experiences that combine both types of experiences. Concerning research, we identify some methodological limitations that should be addressed in further studies.
Undergraduate students’ approaches to studying and perceptions of learning context: A comparison between China and Chile. Higher Education Research & Development. 37(7), 1530 – 1544.
Autores: Hongbiao, Y. & González, C.
Abstract: Based on responses from 2043 Chinese and 1669 Chilean undergraduate students, this study compared Chinese and Chilean students’ approaches to studying and perceptions of the learning context. The results show that Chinese students and male students were generally in a more unfavorable situation in terms of their approaches to studying and course experiences than their Chilean and female counterparts, and that students who were pursuing majors in science and engineering performed worse than students who were pursuing majors in the humanities and social sciences. Although the results regarding the relationship between approaches to studying and course experiences were largely consistent with previous findings, we highlight the different roles of good teaching and appropriate workload in the two samples. In our opinion, these findings reflect the characteristics of student learning in these two higher education systems and may relate to the cultural traditions of learning in China and Chile.
Biology and medicine students’ experience of the relationship between teaching and research. Higher Education. 76(5), 849 – 864.
Autores: Olivares, R; & González, C.
Abstract: In this study, we aim to deepen our understanding of how biology and medicine undergraduate students experience the relationship between teaching and research. Employing a phenomenographic approach, 34 final-year students of a Bachelor in Biological Sciences and a Bachelor of Medicine, from one research-oriented Chilean university, were interviewed. Four categories of description emerged from interviews analysis. These categories range from experiencing teaching and research as disconnected activities to experiencing the relationship between teaching and research as a space to develop higher order thinking skills. Additionally, three dimensions of variation presented a more detailed picture of their experience: role of students in the research process, teaching focus and learning spaces where research is experienced. Also, when comparing the students’ experiences, we found that medicine students, unlike those of biology, do not experience teaching and research as disconnected activities (category A). Besides, although both biology and medicine students experience the relationship between teaching and research as a space to develop thinking skills (category D), there is a difference between them regarding the type of skills that they can develop: analysis and problem-solving in biology and the ability to make informed decisions and raise scientific questions in medicine. These results provide useful insights on how students experience teaching and research activities and its relationship. This might prove useful to the university community to improve the way in which teaching and research are linked in the curriculum of undergraduate programmes, particularly in the biological sciences.
The impact of a university teaching development programme on student approaches to studying and learning experience: evidence from Chile. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 43(5), 597 – 709.
Autores: Marchant. J., González, C. & Fauré, J.
Abstract: In this paper, we analyse the impact of teacher participation in a University Teaching Diploma on student approaches to studying and learning experience. A quasi-experimental and multilevel design was employed. University teachers answered the Approaches to Teaching Inventory and students completed the Course Experience Questionnaire and the Study Process Questionnaire. In addition, contextual variables were included for both teachers and students. The total sample included 44 teachers and 686 students. Of these, 25 university teachers had completed the University Teaching Diploma and 19 had not; 373 students were in courses with a diploma teacher and 313 in courses were not. Results show that those university teachers who have completed the programme have, in their courses, students who were more likely to declare having adopted a deep approach to studying than those teachers who have not participated in the diploma. At the same time, no significant impact was found on the student learning experience. For practical purposes, this investigation provides evidence for the value of teaching development programmes in promoting deeper approaches to studying. For research purposes, it proposes the use of multilevel models to evaluate the impact of university teaching diplomas.
Acquiring skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management: Comparison of high-fidelity simulation versus computer-based case study. Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology. 68(May-June), 292 – 298.
Autores: Corvetto, M., González, C., Mejía, V., Altermatt, F. & Delfino, A.
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high fidelity simulation versus a computer-based case solving self-study, in skills acquisition about malignant hyperthermia on first year anesthesiology residents. Methods: After institutional ethical committee approval, 31 first year anesthesiology residents were enrolled in this prospective randomized single-blinded study. Participants were randomized to either a High Fidelity Simulation Scenario or a computer-based Case Study about malignant hyperthermia. After the intervention, all subjects’ performance in was assessed through a high fidelity simulation scenario using a previously validated assessment rubric. Additionally, knowledge tests and a satisfaction survey were applied. Finally, a semi-structured interview was done to assess self-perception of reasoning process and decision-making. Results: 28 first year residents finished successfully the study. Resident’s management skill scores were globally higher in High Fidelity Simulation versus Case Study, however they were significant in 4 of the 8 performance rubric elements: recognize signs and symptoms (p = 0.025), prioritization of initial actions of management (p = 0.003), recognize complications (p = 0.025) and communication (p = 0.025). Average scores from pre- and post-test knowledge questionnaires improved from 74% to 85% in the High Fidelity Simulation group, and decreased from 78% to 75% in the Case Study group (p = 0.032). Regarding the qualitative analysis, there was no difference in factors influencing the student’s process of reasoning and decision-making with both teaching strategies. Conclusion: Simulation-based training with a malignant hyperthermia high-fidelity scenario was superior to computer-based case study, improving knowledge and skills in malignant hyperthermia crisis management, with a very good satisfaction level in anesthesia residents
Centralized student performance prediction in large courses based on low cost variables in an institutional context. The Internet & Higher Education. 37(April), 76 – 89.
Autores: Sandoval. A., González, C., Alarcón, R., Pichara, K. & Montenegro, M. (2018).
Abstract: An increasing number of higher education institutions have deployed learning management systems (LMSs) to support learning and teaching processes. Accordingly, data-driven research has been conducted to understand the impact of student participation within these systems on student outcomes. However, most research has focused on small samples or has used variables that are expensive to measure, which limits its generalizability. This article presents a prediction model based on low-cost variables and a sophisticated algorithm, to predict early which students attending large classes (with more than 50 enrollments) who are at risk of failing a course. Therefore, it will enable instructors and educational managers to carry out early interventions to prevent course failure. The results overperform other approaches in terms of accuracy, cost, and generalization. Moreover, LMS usage information improved the model by up to 12.28% in terms of root-mean-square error, enabling better early identification of at-risk students.
Enhancing Equity in Higher Education: Institution-level Admissions Initiatives in Chile, Studies in Higher Education, DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2017.1398722.
Autores: Santelices, M. V., Horn, C. & Catalán, X.
Abstract: During the last 10 years, a group of selective universities in Chile has started to implement admissions programs that consider the achievement of students in the context of the educational opportunities they have had, thus reducing reliance on the national college entrance exam. This study explores the program theories in a sample of these programs and their effects on access and academic outcomes. We use a mixed method approach: program theory is explored through the analysis of program documents and interviews, and the effects on access and outcomes are explored through descriptive and inferential statistics of institutional data. This study aims to contribute to the research exploring the evolution and outcomes of institutional admission reforms intended to tackle the problem of equity in higher education.
High School Ranking in University Admissions at a National Level: Theory of Action and Early Results from Chile. Higher Education Policy
Autores: Santelices, M.V., Catalán, X., Horn, C., Venegas, A (2018)
Abstract: Alternative university admissions models like the recent consideration of high school ranking by universities in Chile offer the promise of increasing access to higher education by considering academic performance in context of opportunities to learn. The intent is to employ this policy without sacrificing predictive validity of college success. This study explores the theory of action of the high school ranking policy, as well as the high school ranking’s ability to predict students’ persistence in higher education system and in Chile’s higher education institutions using logistic regressions with fixed and random effects (intercepts) and country-wide data. The theory of action shows a main focus on access and a less intense emphasis on the goal of predicting academic success. The access goal is addressed through considerations during the admission process, and there are few efforts geared toward recruitment and graduation. Results also suggest that the high school ranking marginally helps predict college persistence at the institutional level, but only among students attending traditional universities. In light of results, it is recommended that traditional institutions keep working collaboratively to provide new admissions processes that are transparent, equitable, efficient and predict college success.
Academic Language as a Predictor of Reading Comprehension in Monolingual Spanish‐Speaking Readers: Evidence From Chilean Early Adolescents. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(2), 223–247. doi: 10.1002/rrq.192
Autores: Meneses, A., Uccelli, P., Santelices, M. V., Ruiz, M., Acevedo, D., & Figueroa, J. (2018).
Abstract: Although literacy achievement has improved in Chile, adolescents’ underperformance in reading comprehension is still a serious concern. In English, core academic-language skills (CALS) have been found to significantly predict reading comprehension, even controlling for academic vocabulary knowledge. CALS are high-utility language skills that support reading comprehension across school content areas. Guided by an operational definition of Spanish CALS (S-CALS), three goals drove this study: to develop two psychometrically reliable tests, the S-CALS Instrument and the Spanish Academic Vocabulary (S-AVoc) Test; to explore the dimensionality of core academic-language proficiencies, as measured by these two tests; and to examine the contribution of core academic-language proficiencies to reading comprehension. A cross-sectional sample of 810 Chilean students (grades 4–8) participated in four assessments that measured standardized reading comprehension, word-reading fluency, Spanish academic vocabulary, and S-CALS. Using classical test theory and item response theory analyses, results yielded robust reliability evidence for both instruments. Consistent with prior research, S-CALS and academic vocabulary scores displayed upward trends in higher grades yet considerable within-grade variability. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that S-CALS and S-AVoc were best conceptualized as part of a higher order construct, the Spanish core academic-language and vocabulary skills (S-CALVS). The aggregated S-CALVS scores predicted reading comprehension, beyond the contribution of grade, school factors, and word-reading fluency. This study advances our scientific understanding of CALS as relevant for adolescent literacy beyond the English language. The high-utility school-relevant language and vocabulary skills offer promising tools to inform and evaluate innovative reading comprehension interventions for Spanish-speaking adolescents.
Impacto de la Ayuda Financiera en la Persistencia: el Caso de la Universidad de Chile. Revista Iberoamericana De EvaluacióN Educativa, 11(2). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/riee2018.11.2.006
Autores: Alarcón Valenzuela, M., Santelices, M., Horn, C., & González Soto, P. (2018).
Abstract: La literatura internacional acerca de la persistencia en la educación superior sugiere que la ayuda financiera entregada a los estudiantes afecta positivamente sus resultados académicos. Sin embargo, en Chile existe escasa investigación respecto a este tema, y en particular no se diferencian los efectos de los distintos tipos de ayuda. De acuerdo a esto, el presente estudio tiene por objetivo explorar en qué medida los diferentes tipos y cantidades de ayuda financiera impactan la probabilidad de persistencia de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Chile. Métodos: se utilizó el modelo cuantitativo de supervivencia para el análisis de eventos históricos, el cual permite, a partir de datos longitudinales, estudiar cómo distintos factores se relacionan con la aparición de un evento en diferentes momentos del tiempo y determinar si estos tienen efectos que cambian en función del tiempo. Las variables utilizadas fueron académicas (carrera, notas, etc.), financieras (tipo de ayuda, montos, etc.) y socio-económicas (región de origen, tipo de establecimiento de educación secundaria, etc.). La información se obtuvo de tres bases de datos de la Universidad de Chile y se analizaron las cohortes de ingreso 2009 y 2010. Resultados y Discusión: los resultados muestran que el otorgamiento de una combinación de becas y préstamos estatales, institucionales y/o de origen privado aumenta la probabilidad de permanecer en la Universidad. En particular, se destaca que las becas de mantención tienen un mayor efecto que las ayudas de arancel, y, a su vez, el crédito tiene un mayor impacto que las becas.
Equidad en la Educación Superior: Diseño y Resultados de Programas de Acceso en Universidades Selectivas. CEPPE UC, Centro de Estudios de Políticas y Prácticas en Educación. Santiago, Chile.
Autores: Santelices, M., Catalán, X., Horn, C,(2018)
Abstract: Equidad en la Educación Superior. Diseño y Resultados de Programas de Acceso en Universidades Selectivas, profundiza en tres de estos programas institucionales, estudiando las variabilidades en sus diseños, formas de implementación y resultados. El Propedéutico “Nueva esperanza, mejor futuro” de la Universidad de Santiago de Chile, que se desarrolla desde 2007; el Sistema de Ingreso Prioritario de Equidad Educativa (SIPEE), que se implementó el año 2012 en la Universidad de Chile; y el programa Talento e Inclusión (T+I) de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, que comenzó a ejecutarse el 2011 en la carrera de Ingeniería de dicha casa de estudios.
The Quest for Equity in Chile’s Higher Education. Decades of Continued Efforts. Lexington Books.
Autores: Santelices, M., Horn, C., Catalán, X. (2018)
Abstract: In Chile during the last forty years, there have been important initiatives aimed at increasing equity in higher education, including the private provision of tertiary education starting in 1980, the growing support provided by the state to low-income students through financial aid, the increasing importance of institutional financial aid, a university admissions system that has made efforts to reduce the important weight standardized test scores have traditionally had in admissions decisions and institutional-level programs implemented to broadened the admission of low income students to selective institutions.
This book seeks to describe the concurrent efforts undertaken both at the national and at the institutional level to increase equity in access to higher education and educational outcomes in Chile during the last four decades. Taking stock of the accomplishments of Chile´s higher education system is especially important at a time when social demands and political decisions seem to deeply question the road traveled.
The Weaknesses of Traditional Standard Setting Procedures. In Blomeke and Gustafsson (eds). Standard Setting in Education. The Nordic Countries in an International Perspective. Springer. Switzerland.
Autores: Wilson, M. & Santelices M. V. (2017).
Abstract: This book summarizes the international evidence on methodological issues in standard setting in education. By critically discussing the standard-setting practices implemented in the Nordic countries and by presenting new methodological approaches, it offers fresh perspectives on the current research.
Standard setting targets crucial societal objectives by defining educational benchmarks at different achievement levels, and provides feedback to policy makers, schools and teachers about the strengths and weaknesses of a school system. Given that the consequences of standard setting can be dramatic, the quality of standard setting is a prime concern. If it fails, repercussions can be expected in terms of arbitrary evaluations of educational policy, wrong turns in school or teacher development or misplacement of individual students. Standard setting therefore needs to be accurate, reliable, valid, useful, and defensible.
However, specific evidence on the benefits and limits of different approaches to standard setting is rare and scattered, and there is a particular lack with respect to standard setting in the Nordic countries, where the number of national tests is increasing and there are concerns about the time and effort spent on testing at schools without feedback being provided. Addressing this gap, the book offers a discussion on standard setting by respected experts as well as profound and innovative insights into fundamental aspects of standard setting including conclusions for future methodological and policy-related research.